Vale had begun producing copper concentrate at its Lubambe mine in Zambia, the Brazilian group said last week. Production, which began on October 4, was expected to reach an annual output of 45 000 tons of concentrate, the company said in a securities filing. Vale, the largest producer of iron ore, is diversifying into other commodities, such as coal, fertiliser and nickel production. The Lubambe mine is a joint venture with African Rainbow Minerals and Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines. – Reuters