Sunday Indy Books

The best of South African literature

Mangaung is just another conference

Comment on this story


IOL News si mcebisi Nov11 2012

Mcebisi Ndletyana.

The pre-conference ritual is heating up. Colourful phrases are even being added to our lexicon. “A tipping” Jacob Zuma quipped the other day,” from where to where”! He was disagreeing with his deputy, Kgaleme Motlanthe, that South Africa is at a “tipping-point”. Things are tough out there as members prepare for the 53rd National Conference of the African National Congress (ANC) at the mother-city, Mangaung.

History seems to have conspired to distinguish Mangaung in the life of the liberation movement. This city not only hosted centenary celebrations earlier this year, but had hosted the first conference inside the country upon unbanning in 1990. This will be the sixth national conference since then.

Within these 21 years of re-establishment, the organisation has elected its 10th, 11th and 12th presidents: Nelson Mandela, Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma. Mandela and Mbeki served two terms, and Zuma is completing his first term.

As we get even closer to the 53rd conference, it’s worth asking: What do these conferences really achieve? Does one conference really change policy? And does it even matter who is at the helm of the party?

Put differently, do personalities exert any discernable policy influence or shift?

Individually, none of the previous five conferences yielded any distinct policy shift. This is not entirely surprising. ANC policies have largely been all-encompassing, which makes it difficult to introduce anything that is not already part of the existing policy regime.

Everything is catered for – ngu galel’ ebhayini! This is a function of its multi-class character, especially on economic policy. Social policy has been decidedly liberal. Promoting gender parity, tolerance of religious diversity and commitment towards a secular state have all been part of ANC policy framework for a considerable period.

Economic policy, however, has not been similarly unidimensional. It’s been centrist, encapsulating both leftist and free-market thinking. The 1992 “Ready to Govern” policy document is a telling example in recent history. It envisaged a developmental state that is not only interventionist, but also one that co-exists alongside “a dynamic private sector”. The public sector would be expanded in some sectors and contracted in others.

“The primary question in this regard”, the document explained, “is not the legal form that state involvement in economic activity might take at any point”.

Rather, “the balance of evidence will guide the decision for or against various economic policy measures. Such flexibility means assessing the balance of the evidence in restructuring the public sector to carry out national goals”.

All conferences, therefore, have maintained the centrist orientation. The only difference has been on emphasis. And this is where international context or “balance of evidence” has been influential. Russia’s crumbling economy in the early 1990s, for instance, dampened Mandela’s enthusiasm for nationalisation. He had gone to prison at the height of socialist thinking, but returned into a changed world. It just wasn’t smart touting a nationalised economy when its ultimate advocate was unravelling.

Wherever Mandela visited in Europe he got starry eyes at the mention of nationalisation.

Not that Mandela needed much convincing. CNN beamed scenes showing Russians in long queues at shops, only to find empty shelves. Advocates of capitalism gloated, pointing at the collapse as evidence of the bankruptcy of a statist economy. That was not a happy moment for socialism.

Mandela got the message. He hardly mentioned nationalisation throughout his presidency of the republic, even though it remained an option within the ANC’s policy regime. His deputy, both in the party and government, Thabo Mbeki, did not just keep quiet. He veered government policy away from nationalisation. But he first warned his comrades in a discussion paper titled “State and Social Transformation” written in 1996. The discussion paper envisaged the democratic state establishing “a dialectical relationship with private capital as a social partner for development and social progress. The defining element is a working and harmonious, even at times conflictual relationship between the democratic state and capital”.

Rather than assuming a leading role, therefore, the state would recede back to a regulatory role, making the environment conducive for private capital to flourish. The announcement of intention was subsequently followed in the same year by a government policy, Gear, conferring official sanction to undertake neo-liberal reforms.

State-owned companies unbundled for sale to private hands, debt-servicing received priority, limiting available expenditure towards social services, and excess staff were culled off the bureaucracy. This marked South Africa’s introduction to out-sourcing. “The state”, Mandela once remarked, “is not an employment agency”. Even universities which claimed progressive credentials, some even led by Marxist scholars, off-loaded support service staff to private companies, who paid them a pittance with meagre benefits as they sought to refocus on “core business”.

Note that the introduction of centre-right policies was necessitated by “balance of evidence”. The 1990s were the heyday of neoliberalism. South Africa, coming out of a long, harsh period of economic sanctions, needed to attract foreign direct investment to meet the needs of an expectant black majority. Mbeki reasoned that changes were necessary to make South Africa competitive. Frankly, progressive parties, especially in Europe, were embracing capital as a partner instead of maintaining the hostile posture denouncing it as “the enemy of the people”. They called it the “Third Way”, the latest version of social-democracy. Tony Blair, Schröder and Bill Clinton were its vocal proponents. A member of that international progressive movement, the ANC inevitably shared the newly found embrace of capitalism.

Gear was never subjected to conference approval. It was a government, not a party policy. But ANC policy was not disapproving of Gear either. Remember, the “Ready to Govern” document wished for a “dynamic private sector” and foresaw both reduction and expansion of the public sector. Gear was right in sync with the ANC policy regime, but biased towards the free-market aspects of it. This meant that, just as it hadn’t endorsed Gear, conference couldn’t rescind it.

ANC conferences, therefore, don’t quite prescribe what an ANC government should do. They provide a policy frame which is quite broad, leaving it to government to translate those into specific, implementable official policies. Because they benefit some over others, policies are inevitably contested, especially within a multi-class organisation such as the ANC. Whether or not policies see the light of day, therefore, depends on the force of the personality of the leader. A Sussex-trained economist, Mbeki believed that the reforms were correct. And, when Mbeki believes, he’s unmovable. He shrugged off criticism from the left in the alliance as “psuedo-Marxism”. The pre-Polokwane ANC today contains a lot of Mbeki’s papers, including lectures on “real” Marxism.

Apart from conviction, Gear was also buoyed by a coherent power base. Introduced under Mandela’s presidency, the policy had the full backing of the much-revered founding father. And Mandela told the critics as much. One such instance was at the celebration of the SACP’s 75th anniversary in 1996, when Mandela was invited as a guest speaker. Once he had conveyed the customary revolutionary greetings, he got to the point: “This strategy is government policy. Its fundamentals are not up for negotiation”. Mandela is a man of reconciliation, but sometimes he prefers his word to stand unchallenged. Pallo Jordan could never quite accept that. Mandela fired him from his cabinet.

So, critics never stood a chance of getting Mandela to withdraw Gear. And, once he became president, Mbeki too did not brook any dissent. Because he faced no obvious threat to his presidency, and was not indebted to any particularly constituency, Mbeki could decisively implement Gear. It was implemented with “military precision”, as Cosatu’s Zwelinzima Vavi reminded his comrades at a meeting of the fifth Central Executive Committee meeting in 2011.

ANC leadership is thus critical to the extent that it catapults one to the presidency of the republic. Government ultimately decides which aspects of ANC policy get priority over others. The distinction – between party and government – is inevitable. Government caters for a multiplicity of publics, while the party speaks on behalf of the “formerly oppressed masses of our people”. Mbeki, to whom history conferred the initial responsibility to configure institutions of government, was quite emphatic on this distinction. His critics even complained that Mahlambandlopfu led Luthuli House, instead of the other way round.

The ANC presidency, therefore, offers an opportunity to sway the balance of power among the contending classes in the liberation movement. The strength of one’s power base, however, ultimately determines the scope of policy changes that a president can initiate, if he so desires. This is what makes Mbeki’s presidency the most influential thus far both in terms of configuring state institutions, policy formulation and implementation.

Conversely, Zuma’s ANC presidency lacks a stable power base. Whereas Mbeki forced a resolution of contestations, Zuma has retrieved the organisation back to the ideological impasse. He rose to the party presidency on the back of a promise to change the plight of the working class. This was to be achieved through banning labour brokers and creating decent jobs. The promise was made at the height of a global recession. No decent jobs were created, but many were shed.

Nor have labour brokers been banned, but a new black business lobby – the Black Business Council – emerged to an approving official reception. Black business uses labour brokers and also complains that South African labour is expensive. And, in the process, Luthuli House became impatient with reminders of creating decent jobs, scolding its labour allies that “a job is a job”. Because it was conceived on a promise of a new life to workers, yet representative of black business interests, Zuma’s presidency has been ambivalent.

One day Ebrahim Patel takes Walmart to court saying its take-over of Massmart spells gloom for workers. The next day Kgalema Motlanthe says the Walmart take-over “is a vote of confidence” in the South African economy.

Conferences hardly live up to the hype. Polokwane, as labour came to realise, didn’t turn out to be the “Waterloo” they predicted for pro-market policies. Treasury – the supposed “enemy of the working class” – is still steering policy and is now pushing a wage subsidy for SA’s unemployed youth, to Vavi’s chagrin. The “dream team” they thought they’d secured in the Zuma’s cabinet turned out to be quite ordinary.

That said, Mangaung will most likely emerge with a much stronger emphasis on an activist state. This won’t herald a radical policy change, however. That decisive shift happened back in 2002 at the Stellenbosch conference. The ANC doesn’t make sudden policy changes, but does so only incrementally. ANC policies reflect “continuity in change”. Whether or not the resolutions are then taken further into government policies is not clearcut. It will depend on the balance-of-evidence – what is doable at that moment. A “Lula-moment” may well not materialise, just the same way the “Polokwane victory” turned out to be false.

- Mcebisi Ndletyana is head of the political economy faculty at the Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflections


sign up
 
 

Comment Guidelines



  1. Please read our comment guidelines.
  2. Login and register, if you haven’ t already.
  3. Write your comment in the block below and click (Post As)
  4. Has a comment offended you? Hover your mouse over the comment and wait until a small triangle appears on the right-hand side. Click triangle () and select "Flag as inappropriate". Our moderators will take action if need be.

     

Newspaper Subscriptions
CC82
I'm a 32 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
_Alwayssmiling
I'm a 30 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 41.
View Profile
Stiletto1
I'm a 53 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 50 and 57.
View Profile
Gem24
I'm a 24 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 40.
View Profile
kristella
I'm a 30 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 40.
View Profile
Xtine
I'm a 28 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 38.
View Profile
JustLooking69
I'm a 56 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 50 and 60.
View Profile
KaraatPlus
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 41 and 54.
View Profile
Softberry
I'm a 36 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 55.
View Profile
blondgirl
I'm a 57 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 53 and 60.
View Profile
Pretty_Nerd
I'm a 28 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 37.
View Profile
Grace62
I'm a 33 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 33 and 42.
View Profile
Sugababe
I'm a 41 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 32 and 42.
View Profile
KayBee75
I'm a 39 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 49.
View Profile
KarooBoereMeisie
I'm a 34 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 40.
View Profile
foxy583
I'm a 20 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 20 and 27.
View Profile
Poppielap007
I'm a 23 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 29.
View Profile
bluemon
I'm a 30 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
AngelBabe1
I'm a 27 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 39.
View Profile
Kosmos075
I'm a 39 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 55.
View Profile
Duifie038
I'm a 45 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 36 and 50.
View Profile
Lady66
I'm a 48 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 47 and 55.
View Profile
Liesie
I'm a 31 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 33 and 45.
View Profile
love_passionately
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 45 and 55.
View Profile
ThisIsTheRemix
I'm a 33 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 31 and 41.
View Profile
Elyn1980
I'm a 34 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 42.
View Profile
Isolabelle
I'm a 38 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 45.
View Profile
supe24
I'm a 34 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 65.
View Profile
Kwarenina
I'm a 47 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 42 and 52.
View Profile
Smarag
I'm a 20 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 22 and 30.
View Profile
voelkos
I'm a 54 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 45 and 56.
View Profile
profile01
I'm a 42 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 39 and 47.
View Profile
DelightfullyTipsy
I'm a 38 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 38.
View Profile
xine_414
I'm a 28 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 35.
View Profile
AmaJ
I'm a 44 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 42 and 50.
View Profile
AMy_303
I'm a 39 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 45.
View Profile
Boulderhopper
I'm a 44 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 38 and 50.
View Profile
iamclassy
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 50 and 62.
View Profile
Veronica2477
I'm a 38 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 40 and 50.
View Profile
Lonleyheart007
I'm a 42 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 40 and 50.
View Profile
molletdelvalles
I'm a 39 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 55.
View Profile
Belind4_M
I'm a 19 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 19 and 30.
View Profile
AM1234
I'm a 41 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 38 and 46.
View Profile
ioio
I'm a 37 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 45.
View Profile
Sosialemeis2
I'm a 28 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 46.
View Profile
Lulu_101
I'm a 36 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 38 and 45.
View Profile
LuckyCharm_440
I'm a 29 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 29 and 40.
View Profile
Gypsey4Life
I'm a 51 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 50 and 62.
View Profile
Natz79
I'm a 35 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
Sparkie92
I'm a 22 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 22 and 29.
View Profile
Stella143
I'm a 35 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 34 and 45.
View Profile
ddb65
I'm a 49 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 50 and 60.
View Profile
Ldp123
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 44 and 58.
View Profile
Lvit2C
I'm a 29 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 27 and 39.
View Profile
Chanex
I'm a 20 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 23 and 26.
View Profile
thrillsandfrills
I'm a 40 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 41 and 45.
View Profile
OneWay
I'm a 39 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 47.
View Profile
MustLoveDogz
I'm a 33 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 33 and 43.
View Profile
Lemoenbloeisel
I'm a 35 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
Comet43
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 40 and 54.
View Profile
00butterflygirl00
I'm a 30 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 28 and 36.
View Profile
LOVINGLIFE417
I'm a 45 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 43 and 50.
View Profile
devotedlady
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 43 and 55.
View Profile
KiTella
I'm a 31 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 29 and 42.
View Profile
veldmuis007
I'm a 33 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 28 and 35.
View Profile
KiesaCutebrowneye
I'm a 26 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 37.
View Profile
itu22
I'm a 22 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 37.
View Profile
Omdraai
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 41 and 49.
View Profile
Lisa_Jayne
I'm a 27 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 23 and 35.
View Profile
butterflykisses14
I'm a 30 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 31 and 51.
View Profile
Gem31
I'm a 24 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 35.
View Profile
kim2702
I'm a 46 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 38 and 50.
View Profile
PhoenixLin
I'm a 32 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 42.
View Profile
Cymbidium
I'm a 47 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 47 and 60.
View Profile
Viv42
I'm a 42 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 38 and 55.
View Profile
PixelFairy
I'm a 21 year old woman looking to meet men and women between the ages of 18 and 35.
View Profile
Believer001
I'm a 30 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 32 and 45.
View Profile
ContagiousLaughter
I'm a 41 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 37 and 44.
View Profile
lenQ313
I'm a 19 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 22 and 28.
View Profile
ChatRouge
I'm a 38 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 32 and 46.
View Profile
Diena_van_die_Eike
I'm a 49 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 49 and 62.
View Profile
HottFoxx
I'm a 46 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 40 and 55.
View Profile
mystiqueZN
I'm a 29 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 27 and 45.
View Profile
Athena
I'm a 37 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 37 and 45.
View Profile
Marianda
I'm a 25 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 30.
View Profile
lookingsexy200
I'm a 36 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 34 and 45.
View Profile
dreamsoftly
I'm a 49 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 47 and 58.
View Profile
Graciousheart
I'm a 47 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 44 and 56.
View Profile
KissFromARose
I'm a 58 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 55 and 64.
View Profile
Rietjie007
I'm a 43 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 40 and 46.
View Profile
chicky582
I'm a 25 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 30.
View Profile
Dreamer1987
I'm a 27 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 35.
View Profile
AGX
I'm a 36 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 44.
View Profile
HoopvolleToekoms
I'm a 32 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 32 and 39.
View Profile
Charms1203
I'm a 39 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 35 and 55.
View Profile
DaffodilTulip
I'm a 48 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 40 and 50.
View Profile
This_is_m3
I'm a 45 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 45 and 50.
View Profile
pesin15
I'm a 38 year old woman looking to meet men between the ages of 18 and 100.
View Profile
deeptime
I'm a 53 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 48 and 58.
View Profile
TheRealPeterPan
I'm a 35 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 28 and 35.
View Profile
OldGoat4400
I'm a 53 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 48.
View Profile
JustCallMeBwana
I'm a 47 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 28 and 38.
View Profile
cloudhopper
I'm a 56 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 45 and 55.
View Profile
Double_N
I'm a 41 year old man looking to meet men between the ages of 25 and 50.
View Profile
MysticKitesurfer
I'm a 43 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 27 and 36.
View Profile
Ben_57
I'm a 57 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 42 and 55.
View Profile
Lifechanger_7
I'm a 25 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 18 and 30.
View Profile
POKEY
I'm a 44 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 34 and 45.
View Profile
FeaturedProfile
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 54.
View Profile
Determined_69
I'm a 45 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 47.
View Profile
MOOLMAN
I'm a 56 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 48 and 62.
View Profile
Red_Red_Wine
I'm a 61 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 39 and 59.
View Profile
Summerstorm_007
I'm a 60 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 48 and 58.
View Profile
audiess
I'm a 50 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 39 and 64.
View Profile
cornrlius205
I'm a 46 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 50.
View Profile
Glorious_Quest
I'm a 45 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 32 and 45.
View Profile
Virion
I'm a 30 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 33.
View Profile
TheDuke_99
I'm a 36 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 28 and 42.
View Profile
Mais_171
I'm a 49 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 55.
View Profile
Rebelinbluejeans
I'm a 62 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 62.
View Profile
gentlebutcrazy
I'm a 58 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 55.
View Profile
MAN_BOU
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 50 and 75.
View Profile
Stressfree
I'm a 58 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 42 and 52.
View Profile
WanderingShadow
I'm a 39 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 20 and 40.
View Profile
QuietDreamer
I'm a 34 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 35.
View Profile
JustJve99
I'm a 47 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 45.
View Profile
letslook
I'm a 46 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 45.
View Profile
arew
I'm a 49 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 55.
View Profile
drurie
I'm a 66 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 60 and 66.
View Profile
saks001
I'm a 61 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 47 and 59.
View Profile
50pluslooking
I'm a 56 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 18 and 100.
View Profile
earthwormjim1968
I'm a 46 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 48.
View Profile
Woody777
I'm a 50 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 55.
View Profile
Cruisingoldie
I'm a 46 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 50.
View Profile
Rick1508
I'm a 49 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 49.
View Profile
Btt76
I'm a 38 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 42.
View Profile
Fairtalk101
I'm a 46 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 45.
View Profile
heartroll
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 49 and 60.
View Profile
BobTheExtremeBuilder
I'm a 47 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 47.
View Profile
boersoekvrou14
I'm a 39 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 42.
View Profile
chester3
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 49 and 76.
View Profile
skyandsand
I'm a 31 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 35.
View Profile
Rich_H
I'm a 48 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 48.
View Profile
LoveFriendFirst123
I'm a 56 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 50 and 72.
View Profile
Marley77
I'm a 37 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 28 and 35.
View Profile
WieEnWaar
I'm a 63 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 50 and 62.
View Profile
henisright
I'm a 50 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 37 and 53.
View Profile
Romanticseb
I'm a 59 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 45 and 57.
View Profile
ch_nb
I'm a 28 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 18 and 45.
View Profile
Liefasb
I'm a 63 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 50 and 60.
View Profile
JONGKEREL
I'm a 62 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 49 and 55.
View Profile
tigercat
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 22 and 54.
View Profile
Boereman
I'm a 52 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 52.
View Profile
matiekat
I'm a 66 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 18 and 100.
View Profile
Dreamzzz
I'm a 48 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 45.
View Profile
koolstoof55
I'm a 59 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 45 and 63.
View Profile
AJK1110
I'm a 59 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 55.
View Profile
LEO1982
I'm a 32 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 24 and 40.
View Profile
DoctorSpin
I'm a 41 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
Free_Spirited
I'm a 45 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 32 and 42.
View Profile
WagOngeduldig
I'm a 41 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
Thebestone1
I'm a 57 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 52.
View Profile
Mfactor
I'm a 41 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 40.
View Profile
sailor_X897
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 60.
View Profile
waitingforgodot
I'm a 68 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 53 and 60.
View Profile
MAX_33
I'm a 55 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 33 and 53.
View Profile
annns
I'm a 51 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 48 and 56.
View Profile
Geard1977
I'm a 37 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 27 and 38.
View Profile
Carden
I'm a 32 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 24 and 30.
View Profile
TheRisingSun
I'm a 41 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 40.
View Profile
big_guy_soft_heart
I'm a 43 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 42.
View Profile
eks_joe
I'm a 52 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 47 and 53.
View Profile
Soulsearcher72
I'm a 42 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 45.
View Profile
maybe_111
I'm a 41 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 23 and 39.
View Profile
niemandsland
I'm a 30 year old man looking to meet men between the ages of 28 and 40.
View Profile
Espavo
I'm a 50 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 48.
View Profile
bellagio
I'm a 69 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 55 and 65.
View Profile
Bushbaby210
I'm a 27 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 21 and 35.
View Profile
rossi46
I'm a 66 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 55 and 65.
View Profile
happymaker66
I'm a 48 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 45.
View Profile
LiveLifeAlways
I'm a 43 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 33 and 41.
View Profile
shadowwarrior
I'm a 59 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 38 and 55.
View Profile
oth1982
I'm a 32 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 18 and 100.
View Profile
srchinluv
I'm a 52 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 46 and 65.
View Profile
Kawa1000
I'm a 49 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 40 and 50.
View Profile
Mark_tv
I'm a 42 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 30 and 45.
View Profile
GenuineJ
I'm a 64 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 48 and 64.
View Profile
CapeLover
I'm a 49 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 41 and 50.
View Profile
Gster1
I'm a 64 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 45 and 60.
View Profile
philip_unplugged514
I'm a 62 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 50 and 65.
View Profile
Breukes
I'm a 35 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 26 and 35.
View Profile
Stream_Net
I'm a 32 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 24 and 32.
View Profile
Rumrun
I'm a 56 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 44 and 56.
View Profile
Eugene053
I'm a 54 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 25 and 45.
View Profile
B_B_B
I'm a 43 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 18 and 45.
View Profile
umustbsomewhere
I'm a 61 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 45 and 55.
View Profile
Pete_1
I'm a 70 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 55 and 65.
View Profile
IceDad66
I'm a 48 year old man looking to meet women between the ages of 35 and 45.
View Profile

Business Directory