This undated photo provided by NASA shows the Orbital Sciences Corporation Pegasus XL rocket with the NuSTAR spacecraft after attachment to the L-1011 carrier aircraft known as "Stargazer." The Pegasus will launch NuSTAR into space, Wednesday June 13, 2012 where the high-energy X-ray telescope will conduct a census for black holes, map radioactive material in young supernovae remnants, and study the origins of cosmic rays and extreme physics around collapsed stars. (AP Photo/NASA, Randy Beaudoin)
This undated photo provided by NASA shows the Orbital Sciences Corporation Pegasus XL rocket with the NuSTAR spacecraft after attachment to the L-1011 carrier aircraft known as "Stargazer." The Pegasus will launch NuSTAR into space, Wednesday June 13, 2012 where the high-energy X-ray telescope will conduct a census for black holes, map radioactive material in young supernovae remnants, and study the origins of cosmic rays and extreme physics around collapsed stars. (AP Photo/NASA, Randy Beaudoin)
This image provided by NASA shows an artist rendering of the space agency's latest X-ray telescope. NuStar is set to launch on a two-year mission on Wednesday June 13,2012 from the Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific to study black holes and other celestial objects. (AP Photo/NASA)
This image provided by NASA shows an artist rendering of the space agency's latest X-ray telescope. NuStar is set to launch on a two-year mission on Wednesday June 13,2012 from the Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific to study black holes and other celestial objects. (AP Photo/NASA)
A combination photo shows a launch sequence of NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) being launched from the carrier "Stargazer" plane into the morning skies over the central Pacific Ocean at 9 a.m. PDT (noon EDT) June 13, 2012, beginning its mission to unveil secrets of buried black holes and other exotic objects.  REUTERS/Orbital Sciences Corporation/Handout  (UNITED STATES - Tags: SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY) FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS
A combination photo shows a launch sequence of NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) being launched from the carrier "Stargazer" plane into the morning skies over the central Pacific Ocean at 9 a.m. PDT (noon EDT) June 13, 2012, beginning its mission to unveil secrets of buried black holes and other exotic objects. REUTERS/Orbital Sciences Corporation/Handout (UNITED STATES - Tags: SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY) FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS
The Orbital Science Corporation's "Stargazer" plane is shown releasing its Pegasus rocket in this undated NASA handout photo. NASA's launched its Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) on a Pegasus rocket from Kwajalein Atoll on June 13, 2012. REUTERS/NASA/Orbital Sciences Corporation/Handout (UNITED STATES - Tags: SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY) FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS
The Orbital Science Corporation's "Stargazer" plane is shown releasing its Pegasus rocket in this undated NASA handout photo. NASA's launched its Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) on a Pegasus rocket from Kwajalein Atoll on June 13, 2012. REUTERS/NASA/Orbital Sciences Corporation/Handout (UNITED STATES - Tags: SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY) FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS
All that remains of the oldest documented example of a supernova, called RCW 86, is seen in this image, a combination of data from four different space telescopes to create a multi-wavelength view, released by NASA October 24, 2011. X-ray images from the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are combined to form the blue and green colors in the image. The X-rays show the interstellar gas that has been heated to millions of degrees by the passage of the shock wave from the supernova.Infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, as well as NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) are shown in yellow and red, and reveal dust radiating at a temperature of several hundred degrees below zero. This is the first time that this type of cavity has been seen around a white dwarf system prior to explosion. RCW 86 is approximately 8,000 light-years away. At about 85 light-years in diameter, it occupies a region of the sky in the southern constellation of Circinus
All that remains of the oldest documented example of a supernova, called RCW 86, is seen in this image, a combination of data from four different space telescopes to create a multi-wavelength view, released by NASA October 24, 2011. X-ray images from the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are combined to form the blue and green colors in the image. The X-rays show the interstellar gas that has been heated to millions of degrees by the passage of the shock wave from the supernova.Infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, as well as NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) are shown in yellow and red, and reveal dust radiating at a temperature of several hundred degrees below zero. This is the first time that this type of cavity has been seen around a white dwarf system prior to explosion. RCW 86 is approximately 8,000 light-years away. At about 85 light-years in diameter, it occupies a region of the sky in the southern constellation of Circinus

Irene Klotz

Houston

An innovative X-ray telescope blasted off aboard an unmanned air-launched rocket on Wednesday to begin a two-year mission to ferret out black holes and other high-energy celestial phenomena in space, Nasa officials said.

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, nicknamed NuStar, shot toward orbit aboard a Pegasus XL rocket seconds after being released from an aircraft flying about 12 200m over the Pacific Ocean, south of the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

Circling the Earth in orbit, one of the X-ray telescope’s initial jobs will be to conduct a sky survey, intended to give astronomers more information about how galaxies formed.

Its technology will later be used to examine galaxy clusters, supernova explosions and certain regions of space where particles are being accelerated close to the speed of light, such as around black holes.

In studying supernovas – the exploded remains of giant stars – scientists will be looking for telltale chemical fingerprints of radioactive titanium.

“There’s a whole variety of phenomena from very extreme neutron stars to remnants of old stellar explosions we haven’t discovered yet,” said lead scientist Fiona Harrison, with the California Institute of Technology.

Supernovas are an important measuring stick for determining the universe’s rate of expansion.

Because astronomers believe they give off roughly the same amount of light, measuring their brightness has been used to determine how distant they are, much like how a standard 100-watt light bulb appears dimmer if it is farther away.

“With these observations, we’ll get a better idea of the physics of supernova explosions,” said NuStar project scientist Daniel Stern, with Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

Using NuStar to study high-energy X-rays, which can pass through obscuring gas and dust, also should reveal the locations of black holes, scientists said. “We’re pretty sure that every big galaxy has a super-massive black hole in its centre and the models predict that most of the ones that are actively accrediting material and get very bright are being hidden by gas and dust around them,” Stern said.

NuStar will be able to pin down how many black holes are hiding, how big they are and where they are located.

NuStar complements Nasa’s Chandra X-ray observatory and Europe’s XMM-Newton telescope, both of which study cosmic X-ray light in lower energy wavelengths.

The telescope consists of two sets of 133 concentric shells of mirrors, made from flexible glass, such as is used in laptop computer screens. Since X-rays need a large area to focus, NuStar has a 10.5m mast that is expected to unfold on June 20. The telescope alone will cost about $180 million (R1.5 billion). – Reuters