File image: Stephen Hawking. (Independent UK).

CAPE TOWN - Britain’s famed physicist, Stephen Hawking who was the first to explain a theory of cosmology, had several other predictions you may not know of.

Take a look at the top ten discoveries by Hawking:


Hawking was the first to explain the theory of cosmology and the origin of the universe. 

According to Hawking, the universe may have started as a singularity.  

Theory: The universe obeys the general theory of relativity and fits any of the models of physical cosmology developed by Alexander Friedmann, then it must have begun as a singularity.

2. The Large Scale Structure of Space and Time

‘Hawking published his first book in 1973, titled The Large Scale Structure of Space and Time which he co-wrote with South African Professor of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, George Ellis. 

The book speaks about the foundation of space and its nature of infinite expansion.

The book is considered highly complex and has been considered a classic.

3. The second law of black hole dynamics

Hawking hypothesised the so-called second law of black hole dynamics in 1970. This law says that the event horizon of a black hole can never get smaller. 

4. Hawking's radiation

Hawking coined the term Hawking’s radiation. This term refers to black holes which emit radiation and can continue until all their energy is depleted and they evaporate. 

Following his academic recognition, Hawking then went to Cambridge as a senior academic in gravitational physics. 

In 1975, Hawking received the Eddington Medal award for investigations of outstanding merit in theoretical astrophysics and also the Pius XI Gold Medal. 

READ ALSO: Stephen Hawking: a brief history of genius

5. Inflation cosmology

Around 1981, Hawking and British theoretical physicist, Gary Gibbons organised a three-week workshop on “The Very Early Universe” which focused on the inflation theory. This theory proposed that after the Big Bang, the universe expanded and then settled to a slower expansion. 

6. Hartle-Hawking state

Hawking and American physicist, Jim Harlte developed the Hartle-Hawking state. This proposed that before the earliest stage of the Big Bang, the Planck epoch, the universe did not have a boundary in space-time and time was non existent. 


Despite all the awards, it did not provide significant financial well-being and he decided to write a book in 1982. He signed a contract with American publishing house, Bantam Books. By 1984, the first draft of his book, A Brief History of Time was complete and eventually, the book sold 9 million copies. 

Following the success of his book, Hawking was described as “Master of the Universe” and he enjoyed both financial rewards as well as celebrity status. 

Hawking was awarded the  Franklin Medal and in 1982 and in the New Year Honours, he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). 

ALSO READ: Stephen Hawking: 10 quotes from the witty genius

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