London - Collars which give pets mild electric shocks to help keep them safe in gardens are humane and in the animals' best interests, vets say.
Others, known as remote training devices, allow an owner or trainer to deliver a shock to the animal at the push of a button if it misbehaves.
"The pet is in control and quickly learns not to go close to the boundary," said a group of British vets.
"We are confident in the sound science that shows that these garden systems do no harm to pets. They instead stop them joining the 300 000 cats and countless dogs killed on the roads every year."
On the other hand, the remote training collars should be regulated because there is evidence that they can upset dogs, they said.