Voters line up to cast their votes outside a polling station during the second phase of the general election in Amroha. Picture: Anushree Fadnavis/Reuters

Bengaluru/New Delhi - Voters across swaths of southern India began queuing up early on Thursday in the second phase of a mammoth, staggered general election in which opposition parties are trying to stop Prime Minister Narendra Modi from winning a second term.

More than 155 million people are eligible to vote in the second phase, which covers 95 parliament constituencies in 12 states including parts of restive Jammu and Kashmir. India's parliament has 545 members.

The focus will be on the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, where the main opposition Congress party and its allies need to win big if they hope to oust Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

The BJP secured a landslide majority in the previous general election in 2014, in part by winning sweeping victories in six northern states that gave the party 70 percent of all its seats, said Neelanjan Sircar, an assistant professor at Ashoka University near the capital, New Delhi.

"You can never expect you’ll do that again," he said. "Those seats that you lose, you’ll have to make up somewhere."

Sircar also said the BJP would be looking to make gains in Karnataka.

A Kashmiri man displays the indelible ink mark on his index finger after casting his vote, outside a polling booth during the second phase of India's general elections, in Srinagar, Indian controlled Kashmir. Picture: Dar Yasin/AP

The election began last week and will end next month in a giant exercise involving almost 900 million people. Votes will be counted on May 23 and the results are expected the same day.

Modi and the BJP have run an aggressive campaign, playing to their nationalist, Hindu-first base and attacking rivals they accuse of appeasing minorities.

Critics say such divisive election rhetoric is a threat to India's secular foundations.

Voters line up to cast their votes outside a polling station during the second phase of the general election in Amroha. Picture: Anushree Fadnavis/Reuters

"Communal polarisation is obviously the biggest issue for me," said Rakesh Mehar, who voted in Karnataka's capital, Bengaluru. "And the growing intolerance in the country is what worries me the most."

A firebrand Hindu ascetic from the BJP who governs northern Uttar Pradesh was banned from campaigning for a few days because of anti-Muslim comments, India's election commission said on Monday.

The Congress party is focusing on concerns about rising unemployment and agrarian distress and is staking it campaign on a promise for a generous handout to India's poorest families.

Election officers sit inside an empty polling station during the second phase of India's general elections, in Srinagar, Indian controlled Kashmir. Picture: Dar Yasin/AP

Voters in Bengaluru, once a sleepy retirement town that has been transformed into India's technology hub, said they wanted lawmakers who would fix infrastructure problems such as traffic congestion and poor water management.

"We have been voting every time expecting a change but nothing has come so far. People are talking about national issues," said Manjunath Munirathnappa. "But only when they fix the local issues will there be progress in the nation." 

Reuters