People's Liberation Army (PLA) troops stand guard with tanks in front of Tiananmen Square after crushing the students' pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing on June 10, 1989. File picture: Sadayuki Mikami/AP

Taipei - China must "sincerely repent" for the bloody crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators in and around Tiananmen Square three decades ago and promote democratic reforms, Taiwan's government said on Monday ahead of the sensitive anniversary.

Tuesday marks 30 years since Chinese troops opened fire to end the student-led unrest. Chinese authorities ban any public commemoration of the event on the mainland and have never released a full death toll. Estimates from human rights groups and witnesses range from several hundred to several thousand.

"China has to sincerely repent for the June 4 incident and proactively push for democratic reforms," Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council said in a statement likely to infuriate China.

"We earnestly admonish the Chinese authorities to face up to the historical mistake, and sincerely apologise as soon as possible."

The council said Beijing had been telling lies to cover up the events of 1989 and distorting the truth.

There was no immediate response from Beijing. China claims self-ruled and democratic Taiwan as its sacred territory, to be taken back by force if necessary.

Beijing has increased government suppression of rights activism, pushing the demonstrators' original goals further away than ever.

"Taiwan will continue to point to the direction of democracy for mainland China," the council said, adding that it would support China's move to democracy "in all manner of ways".

Students rest in the litter of Tiananmen Square in Beijing on May 28, 1989, as their strike for government reform enters its third week. File picture: Jeff Widener/AP

Chinese Defence Minister Wei Fenghe on Sunday defended Beijing's handling of Tiananmen, saying the government "was decisive in stopping the turbulence", a rare official acknowledgement of the events of June 4.

Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council said such remarks in defence of the Chinese military's handling of the protests were "incredible".

"It proves that them keeping saying 'Chinese people don't attack Chinese people' is a gargantuan lie."

China has been ramping up the pressure on Taiwan, which holds presidential elections in January, whittling away at its few remaining diplomatic allies and regularly sending air force jets close to the island.

A student protester puts barricades in the path of an already burning armoured personnel carrier that rammed through student lines during an army attack on pro-democracy protesters on Beijing's Tiananmen Square early on June 4, 1989. File picture: Jeff Widener/AP

Beijing suspects President Tsai Ing-wen and her ruling Democratic Progressive Party of pushing formal independence for Taiwan, a red line for China. Tsai repeatedly says she wants to maintain the status quo but vows to defend the island's democracy.

China's defence minister, also speaking on Sunday, said the military would fight "if anyone dares to split Taiwan from China".

Taiwan's defence ministry labelled Wei's remarks "bellicose" and a clear threat to peace and security. 

Reuters