An estimated 1.8 billion Muslims in the world consume Halaal, and that is not just food. Halaal covers a range of other sectors, namely finance, fashion, travel, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, media and recreation.
According to the 2018/19 State of the Global Islamic Economy Report the global Muslim spend across all sectors was US$2.1 trillion in 2017. The Muslim spend in the global Halaal travel sector in 2017 was US$177 billion, and is forecast to reach US$274 billion by 2023, with an astounding growth rate of 7,6% per annum.
Muslims are the biggest consumers of Halaal, but they are not its biggest producers. The biggest producers of Halaal are multinationals that have no interest in Islam as a faith.
In South Africa social, cultural historical issues play an important role in the political economy. Such issues include historical unfair advantage for whites under apartheid and the marginalisation and exclusion of communities.
The classic case in point is the Bo-Kaap, which is the locus of much tension due to resistance by residents to creeping gentrification. Add to that the discontent of Bo-Kaap residents over insensitive and distorted narratives conveyed by tour guides to tourists.