Madrid has activated an anti-pollution order that significantly restricts private vehicles in the city centre, including a total ban on the most polluting cars.
The much-debated plan establishes a 472 hectare-low-emission zone in the heart of the Spanish capital.
Petrol vehicles manufactured before 2000 and diesel ones registered prior to 2006 are banned from the area or will face a 90-euro (R1 400) fine.
Only public buses, taxis, residents and some professional vehicles are exempt. Electric, zero-emission cars are allowed in.
Some local politicians say the plan will have meagre effects on air quality and is a publicity stunt by the city’s mayor, Manuela Carmena.
Carmena, a left-wing former judge, says Friday that those opposed to the changes will get used to the restrictions and increase their use of public transport.
Social media has already reacted to the announcement: