FILE PHOTO - A customer takes a 50 Yuan note out as she pays for pork at a market in Beijing
INTERNATIONAL - China's total social financing (TSF), a broad measure of credit and liquidity in the economy, rose to 1.6 trillion yuan (R3.2trillion) last month, from 1.04trillion yuan in October, central bank data showed yesterday. 

TSF includes off-balance-sheet forms of financing that exist outside the conventional bank lending system, such as initial public offerings, loans from trust companies and bond sales. 

The economic barometer has become a gauge of fund-raising trends and can provide hints of activity in China’s vast and unregulated shadow banking sector. Authorities have been trying to clamp down on risky forms of lending as part of a drive to contain systemic financial risks.