Detroit - Ford has reported its first quarterly loss in two years due to a pension accounting charge and losses in every global region except North America.
The carmaker, which recently announced an alliance with Volkswagen, is restructuring its operations globally. It is making cuts in Europe, looking to reorganise its South American operations and turn around China - all unprofitable regions.
"It was not a year we were happy with and the fourth quarter continued that theme," Chief Financial Officer Bob Shanks told reporters at the company's headquarters outside Detroit. He acknowledged the potential for such disruptions as strikes this year in regions it is restructuring.
Last week, Ford provided a cloudier 2019 outlook due to tariff costs and uncertainty over Britain's exit from the European Union, only saying it had the potential for higher earnings and revenue.
That was in contrast to Ford's larger US rival General Motors, which on January 11 forecast higher 2019 earnings that far surpassed analysts' estimates.