Travis Tygart, the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency chief, says Russia has only been emboldened by previous sanctions for its doping violations and the four-year ban imposed on Monday will do nothing to change its behaviour.
Russia was banned from the world's top sporting events for four years on Monday, including the next Summer and Winter Olympics and the 2022 soccer World Cup, for tampering with doping test data.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) executive committee acted after concluding that Moscow had planted fake evidence and deleted files linked to positive doping tests in laboratory data that could have helped identify drug cheats.
The ban comes as a huge blow to Russian pride and President Vladimir Putin said on Monday that Moscow might appeal the decision, as is their right within 21 days.
WADA's move does leave the door open for "clean" Russian athletes to compete as individuals in Tokyo without their flag or anthem, a decision Tygart has described as "yet another devastating blow to clean athletes".