Cape Town - Flemming Rose is a Danish author and journalist. He is currently the foreign editor of the newspaper Jyllands-Posten. In 2005, in an exploration of self-censorship in Denmark, Rose commissioned a series of cartoons for Jyllands-Posten, including several that depicted the prophet Muhammad. The cartoons sparked great controversy in the Muslim world; demonstrations erupted throughout the Middle East and several Danish embassies were attacked. Jyllands-Posten’s employees faced a large number of death threats, and an attempt was made on the life of the cartoonist behind the most controversial drawing. In 2010, Rose released “Tyranny of Silence,” a book that explores the cartoon crisis and its ramifications from a global perspective. In addition to his work as editor, Rose has spent more than 10 years as Moscow correspondent for both Jyllands-Posten and Berlingske Tidende.

The impression has been created that the local Muslim community would have had a violent response, which is far from the truth, says Shafiq Morton.

Cape Town - The decision by UCT to stop former Jyllands-Posten cultural editor, Flemming Rose, from delivering the 2016 TB Davie Memorial Lecture scratches at the scars of the 2005 Prophet Muhammad cartoon controversy, and opens up all the old questions of the freedom of speech in South Africa.

Invited by UCT’s Academic Freedom Committee (AFC) last year, Rose is said to be disappointed at the cancellation of his lecture. The cancellation was prompted by UCT’s fears of an inappropriate response from a sector of the Muslim community and the volatile situation at local university campuses.

The TB Davie Memorial lecture is traditionally one of UCT’s main academic events, its stated purpose to celebrate academic liberty and freedom of speech.

Previous guests have been celebrated intellectuals such as Noam Chomsky and the Palestinian scholar, Edward Said, famed for his work on Orientalism.

The AFC initially refused to rescind Rose’s invitation, but vice-chancellor Max Price, on behalf of the university’s executive, informed the AFC it would not be permitted to bring Rose onto campus.

Stating that public order on South African campuses was in a “fragile state”, Price said it had been felt Rose would retard, rather than advance, academic freedom.

Price added in a letter academic freedom was not unlimited, explaining its exercise depended on a careful assessment of when such limits might pertain, “in line with the directives of our constitution”.

While the AFC, acting in the best interests of academia, had started out with a pertinent question on religious tolerance, and while the UCT authorities were forced to confront the question given today’s climate at universities, the process has to be interrogated as the main stakeholder - the Muslim community - was only consulted when UCT was reviewing the situation.

It has to be remembered the Jyllands-Posten cartoon feature became a painful issue for Muslims when the Danish newspaper published 12 editorial cartoons on September 30, 2005 of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam.

The newspaper’s explanation that it was attempting to contribute to Islamic critique and self-censorship had not gone down well in the international Muslim community, which regards iconic or caricature depictions of Prophet Muhammad as blasphemy - no matter the context.

The Jyllands-Posten cartoons were seen as yet another post 9/11 provocation.

Muslim groups in Denmark had petitioned unsuccessfully - losing a judicial appeal - and the issue had led to protests, some of them unfortunately violent with 200 fatalities, in the world’s capitals. It also led to trade boycotts of Denmark with 11 Muslim ambassadors requesting a meeting with then Danish Prime Minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen.

In South Africa, the Gauteng and Durban-based Jami’at ul-Ulama was granted a court interdict preventing local newspapers from publishing the cartoons. The gagging order was seen as a moment of pre-emptive overkill by the South African National Editor’s Forum (Sanef) and some of our country’s editors.

At the time Rose had said that modern, secular society was rejected by some Muslims and that they demanded “a special position, insisting on special consideration of their own religious feelings”.

He said this was incompatible with contemporary democracy and freedom of speech, where one had to put up with ridicule.

It was not attractive, and it did not mean that religious feelings should be made fun of at any price, but that was of minor consideration in the present context. He said we were on a slippery slope if no one could tell where self-censorship ended.

Jyllands-Posten eventually issued an apology, regretting if it had caused any hurt, but maintaining it had a right to publish the cartoons.

In our local context, Rose - hailing from an almost belligerently secular society - would meet with stiff challenge on his assumptions.

Our constitution - secular but framed within a believing community - considers all faiths equal, and special, in terms of their freedoms and the right to practise with dignity.

The question is not just Islam, but the standpoints of Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, African traditionalists, Rastas and any other traditional belief.

It is highly significant that the Prophet Muhammad was equally sensitive to these questions of identity over 1 400 years ago, when he specifically forbade his followers to harm churches and synagogues as well as rabbis and priests - which has led to mainstream Sunni scholars condemning even the burning of flags.

In other words, unlike the anarchic freedom of speech as expounded by Rose, our constitution draws a line in the sand with regards to respect and ridicule.

There are actually limits; gross insult draws us into the domain of hate speech, a nasty territory that often engenders institutional discrimination, retributive anger and violence.

These are things Jyllands-Posten did not understand all those years ago, and what led to the disaster of the cartoon saga in a case of catastrophically unintended global consequences.

The tragedy today is the impression has been created, again unintentionally, that the local Muslim community would have had a violent, or inappropriate, response to the appearance of the former Jyllands-Posten cultural editor on a UCT platform. That is far from the truth. Cape Town’s Muslim community is vociferous, yes, but violent? No.

It is a pity that Flemming Rose was not allowed to be part of a panel debate with Islamic and other experts where some of these matters could have been discussed.

He would have learnt that modern, secular society is not spurned by Muslims - just some of its darker aspects such as corruption and xenophobia that the rest of humanity questions too.

* Shafiq Morton is a veteran journalist and the presenter of DriveTime on Cape Talk.

** The views expressed here are not necessarily those of Independent Media.

Cape Argus